Concept Paper Series<img alt="" src="/media/PubImages/Concept%20Paper%20Series%20Torgeir%20Haugaard_ingress.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />Concept Paper Series​The Concept Paper Series is an outlet of applied research addressing problems, needs and challenges in the security, defence and military spheres. http://forsvaret.no/hogskolene/en/research-(2)/publications/concept-paper-series
Norway and NATO. Perspectives from abroad.<img alt="" src="/media/PubImages/NorwegianDefenceMin_FrankBakkeJensen_LTP3.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />Norway and NATO. Perspectives from abroad.On 16 October 2019, Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies held the last of three seminars on the topic of the Norwegian long term defence plan. http://forsvaret.no/hogskolene/en/events/norway-and-nato-perspectives-from-abroad
Unique data from UN peace operations in Africa<img alt="" src="/media/PubImages/UNPOCO%20datasett_ingress.jpg" style="BORDER:0px solid;" />Unique data from UN peace operations in AfricaThe United Nations Protection of Civilians Operations dataset (UNPOCO) captures 200 United Nations military protection operations. http://forsvaret.no/hogskolene/en/research-(2)/unique-data-from-un-peace-operations-in-africa

 Peer-reviewed articles

 

 

Bækken, Håvard. 2019. The Return to Patriotic Education in Post-Soviet Russia: How, When, and Why the Russian Military Engaged in Civilian Nation Building. Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 5(1)Bækken, Håvard. 2019. The Return to Patriotic Education in Post-Soviet Russia: How, When, and Why the Russian Military Engaged in Civilian Nation Building. Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 5(1)<p>​This article examines the military origins of the Russian State Program of Patriotic Education. It documents how the policy was incubated within the Ministry of Defense and had found much of its form and content before Vladimir Putin became Russia’s president. </p><p>To a degree often forgotten, patriotic education was shaped by circumstances of crisis and social destabilization. In response to failed nation building and rising concerns over youth behavior, military values and aesthetics were taken up as a means to cure social ills and moral vices and to counter the influx of western values. </p><p>The military actors involved sought not only to increase the prestige of military service. Equally important was the fact that patriotic education served as a form of social outreach, based on a traditionalist worldview. Soviet and Russian soldiers were seen as important role models for the young, and the Armed Forces as a bearer of historical continuity and “Russianness.” </p><p>Thus, already before Putin’s presidency, the regime invited the military into the heart of civilian affairs, presenting military traditionalism with a stronghold within the domain of official nation building. Under Putin, too, patriotic education policies continue to bear the strong imprint of their origins in crisis and failed nation building in the 1990s.<br></p><p>To buy from Ibidem Verlag: <a href="https://www.ibidem.eu/en/zeitschriften/journal-of-soviet-and-post-soviet-politics-and-society/journal-of-soviet-and-post-soviet-politics-and-society-15580.html">https://www.ibidem.eu/en/zeitschriften/journal-of-soviet-and-post-soviet-politics-and-society/journal-of-soviet-and-post-soviet-politics-and-society-15580.html</a><br></p>
Dyrkolbotn, Geir Olav and Sergii Banin. 2019. Correlating High- and Low-Level Features: Increased Understanding of Malware Classification. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11689Dyrkolbotn, Geir Olav and Sergii Banin. 2019. Correlating High- and Low-Level Features: Increased Understanding of Malware Classification. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11689<p>​<span style="background-color:transparent;color:#333333;font-family:georgia, serif;font-size:17px;">Malware brings constant threats to the services and facilities used by modern society. In order to perform and improve anti-malware defense, there is a need for methods that are capable of malware categorization. </span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">As malware grouped into categories according to its functionality, dynamic malware analysis is a reliable source of features that are useful for malware classification. </span></p><p><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">Different types of dynamic features are described in literature [</span><span class="CitationRef" style="font-size:17px;font-family:"source sans pro", helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;"><a title="View reference" role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="popup-references" href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9#CR5" style="background-color:transparent;box-sizing:border-box;color:#004aa7;padding:0px 1.7px;">5</a></span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">, </span><span class="CitationRef" style="font-size:17px;font-family:"source sans pro", helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;"><a title="View reference" role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="popup-references" href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9#CR6" style="background-color:transparent;box-sizing:border-box;color:#004aa7;padding:0px 1.7px;">6</a></span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">, </span><span class="CitationRef" style="font-size:17px;font-family:"source sans pro", helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;"><a title="View reference" role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="popup-references" href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9#CR13" style="background-color:transparent;box-sizing:border-box;color:#004aa7;padding:0px 1.7px;">13</a></span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">]. These features can be divided into two main groups: high-level features (API calls, File activity, Network activity, etc.) and low-level features (memory access patterns, high-performance counters, etc). </span></p><p><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">Low-level features bring special interest for malware analysts: regardless of the anti-detection mechanisms used by malware, it is impossible to avoid execution on hardware. As hardware-based security solutions are constantly developed by hardware manufacturers and prototyped by researchers, research on low-level features used for malware analysis is a promising topic. The biggest problem with low-level features is that they don’t bring much information to a human analyst. </span></p><p><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">In this paper, we analyze potential correlation between the low- and high-level features used for malware classification. In particular, we analyze n-grams of memory access operations found in [</span><span class="CitationRef" style="font-size:17px;font-family:"source sans pro", helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;"><a title="View reference" role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="popup-references" href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9#CR6" style="background-color:transparent;box-sizing:border-box;color:#004aa7;padding:0px 1.7px;">6</a></span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">] and try to find their relationship with n-grams of API calls. We also compare performance of API calls and memory access n-grams on the same dataset as used in [</span><span class="CitationRef" style="font-size:17px;font-family:"source sans pro", helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;"><a title="View reference" role="button" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="popup-references" href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9#CR6" style="background-color:transparent;box-sizing:border-box;color:#004aa7;padding:0px 1.7px;">6</a></span><span style="font-size:17px;font-family:georgia, serif;background-color:transparent;color:#333333;">]. In the end, we analyze their combined performance for malware classification and explain findings in the correlation between high- and low-level features.</span></p><p><span style="background-color:transparent;color:#333333;font-family:georgia, serif;font-size:17px;">To download from Springer (behind paywall): <a href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-26834-3_9">https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-26834-3_9</a></span></p>
Ekhaugen, Lene. Coordination as showcasing: the establishment of Norway’s Afghanistan Forum. Defence Studies (19)3Ekhaugen, Lene. Coordination as showcasing: the establishment of Norway’s Afghanistan Forum. Defence Studies (19)3<p>​<span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">In complex operations such as the interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, where multiple government ministries are involved in putting together a state’s contributions, the use of national-level coordination bodies has become more widespread. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">Research has taken for granted that the rationale behind these bodies reflects their declared aim – enhanced coordination as a means to improve mission effectiveness. However, they appear to have had modest effect on coordination. That notwithstanding, they seem to remain popular. This prompts us to ask why such bodies are actually established. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">This article – based on in-depth interviews and archival records – critically explores the establishment of Norway’s ad hoc, inter-ministerial, political-level Afghanistan Forum.</span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;"> Distinguishing between a structural-instrumental, a cultural-institutional and an environmental perspective from organizational theory to structure the analysis, this article shows that the declared purpose of the forum, inter-ministerial coordination, proved less important than showcasing coordination efforts and keeping the coalition together. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">In addition, national traditions in handling coordination challenges in the central government apparatus and powerful international reforms helped bring the forum about. This has implications for research on the rationale and effectiveness of these bodies, and also for understanding their policy relevance.</span><br></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">To download <span style="font-family:proximanova, arial, helvetica, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">from Taylor & Francis </span>(behind paywall): <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14702436.2019.1637258" target="_blank">https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14702436.2019.1637258</a> </span></p>
Isaksen, Bjørn Gunnar M. and Ken R. McNaught. Uncertainty handling in estimative intelligence – challenges and requirements from both analyst and consumer perspectives, Journal of Risk Research. Isaksen, Bjørn Gunnar M. and Ken R. McNaught. Uncertainty handling in estimative intelligence – challenges and requirements from both analyst and consumer perspectives, Journal of Risk Research. <p>​<span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">Important assessments of events and activities relating to military, terrorist and hybrid adversaries and the intentions of foreign governments, are made every day, usually involving subjective or ‘estimative’ probabilities and an associated level of confidence. The way in which these uncertainties are accessed and communicated can potentially have enormous impact and consequences. Challenges are reinforced by increasingly complex intelligence problems for which the contemporary analytic paradigm is not tailored to cope. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">It is important to better understand how defence intelligence analysts and consumers handle uncertainty in their assessment and decision support activities and what challenges and requirements they face in doing so. This is mainly achieved by the use of semi-structured interviews with a sample of very senior consumers of military intelligence (mostly Flag Officers of the Norwegian Armed Forces) and focus group interviews with groups of Norwegian intelligence analysts. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">In general, respondents found it difficult or challenging to conceptualize uncertainty analytically. This has implications for the communication of uncertainty and its use in decision-making within the current framework. Secondly, respondents were receptive to suggested potential improvements to the existing framework. One such suggestion involved a differentiated framework, offering different levels of uncertainty resolution in different situations, although none of the respondents had any experience of such a framework for assessing or communicating uncertainty. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">We conclude with some recommendations to improve the process of uncertainty and risk communication in this important and consequential application area. Having particular implications for policy, we recommend that analysts follow a differentiated approach in handling different situations and problems comprising uncertainty, rather than pursuing a standard solution as is current practice.</span><br></p><p>Go to the article (behind paywall): <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13669877.2018.1474245?journalCode=rjrr20">https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13669877.2018.1474245?journalCode=rjrr20</a><br></p>
Lugo, Ricardo G., Andrea Firth-Clark, Benjamin J. Knox, Øyvind Jøsok, Kirsi Helkala og Stefan Sütterlin. Cognitive Profiles and Education of Female Cyber Defence Operators, Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceLugo, Ricardo G., Andrea Firth-Clark, Benjamin J. Knox, Øyvind Jøsok, Kirsi Helkala og Stefan Sütterlin. Cognitive Profiles and Education of Female Cyber Defence Operators, Lecture Notes in Computer Science<p>​<span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">Important assessments of events and activities relating to military, terrorist and hybrid adversaries and the intentions of foreign governments, are made every day, usually involving subjective or ‘estimative’ probabilities and an associated level of confidence. The way in which these uncertainties are accessed and communicated can potentially have enormous impact and consequences. Challenges are reinforced by increasingly complex intelligence problems for which the contemporary analytic paradigm is not tailored to cope. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">It is important to better understand how defence intelligence analysts and consumers handle uncertainty in their assessment and decision support activities and what challenges and requirements they face in doing so. This is mainly achieved by the use of semi-structured interviews with a sample of very senior consumers of military intelligence (mostly Flag Officers of the Norwegian Armed Forces) and focus group interviews with groups of Norwegian intelligence analysts. In general, respondents found it difficult or challenging to conceptualize uncertainty analytically. This has implications for the communication of uncertainty and its use in decision-making within the current framework. Secondly, respondents were receptive to suggested potential improvements to the existing framework. One such suggestion involved a differentiated framework, offering different levels of uncertainty resolution in different situations, although none of the respondents had any experience of such a framework for assessing or communicating uncertainty. </span></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">We conclude with some recommendations to improve the process of uncertainty and risk communication in this important and consequential application area. Having particular implications for policy, we recommend that analysts follow a differentiated approach in handling different situations and problems comprising uncertainty, rather than pursuing a standard solution as is current practice.</span><br></p><p><span style="color:#333333;font-family:"open sans", sans-serif;font-size:17.6px;">The article in full text (behind pay wall): <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13669877.2018.1474245?journalCode=rjrr20" target="_blank">https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13669877.2018.1474245?journalCode=rjrr20</a></span></p>