Defence and Security Studies no. 2/2009
Title: The rise and decline of the Operational Level of War in Norway
Author: Halvor Johansen
Once the hub of Norwegian defence planning, the Norwegian operational level plays a less significant role today. The operational level is the link between the strategic and tactical levels, adapting political and strategic ends to feasible plans and operations. This study looks at various questions regarding the development of the operational level. How were the key institutions built up? And which events made them less significant? Traditionally, these questions have been addressed mainly by using technological or political science approaches. By adding social theory to the perspectives the author also highlights the importance of civil-military relations and popular political support as a base of legitimacy for building and maintaining military institutions. Although the study looks at a development specific to Norway, it also describes an international trend experienced by a number of military organisations.
Lieutenant-Colonel Halvor Johansen holds an MA in military studies from the Norwegian Defence University College (2007). He graduated from the Norwegian Army Military Academy in 1993 and has had a variety of command and staff assignments. Johansen is currently Faculty Advisor at the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College, Oslo.