Oslo Files on defence and security no. 2/2007
Title: War Studies. Perspectives from the Baltic and Nordic War Colleges
Authors: Tom Kristiansen & John Andreas Olsen (eds.)
How do the Baltic and Nordic war colleges deal with the discipline in terms of institutionalisation and academisation? To what extent are there differences and similarities between the teaching programmes a result of the academic status of the colleges within the national educational systems?
Although there are inevitably many different ways to approach the study of war, the discipline itself is arguably the most important in the education of military officers. The discipline, despite its obvious importance, is still in its infancy in both academic and military circles in the Baltic and Nordic countries.
War Studies shows that there are national differences in the acceptance of the term war studies. Moreover, it demonstrates that there are different approaches, both in the substance and in the current struggle of institutionalisation and academisation of what military practitioners so often refer to as the business of action rather than thinking. It will hopefully provide some insight into the status and challenges of war studies at the war colleges in the Baltic and Nordic countries, which then might provide the basis for cooperation and improvement over time as the countries continue to meet to exchange ideas on how to educate military officers.
Content Military Studies : De quoi s’agit -il? Lieutenant Colonels John Andreas Olsen and Lars Magnus Eriksson Department of Strategic Studies Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College The Research Basis for Teaching War Studies – or for the Officer Profession Professor Berndt Brehmer Department of War Studies Swedish National Defence College Advanced Education of Officers in the 21st Century: War Studies or the Science of War as the Core Element Major General Karsten Møller Commandant of the Royal Danish Defence College War Studies at the Finnish National Defence University Professor Pasi Kesseli The Finnish National Defence University The future of War Studies in the Baltic States – "Cinderella" or "Princess" Professor Tomas Jermalavicius and Asta Maskaliunaite
Berndt Brehmer has since 1997 been professor in "Command and Control Decision Making" at the Swedish National Defence College. He has previously been professor of Psychology at the University of Uppsala (1977–1995) and was vice president at the Swedish National Defence College between 1998 and 2004. Professor Brehmer’s research interests are command and control, and dynamic and distributed decision making. He is currently directing research on "The Command Post of the Future" for the Swedish Armed Forces. He has published more than 120 papers in refereed journals and books, and edited six books on decision making and command and war sciences in these areas. Professor Brehmer is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities and the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences.
Lars Magnus Eriksson serves as a Faculty Advisor on strategy, doctrine and military theory in the Division for Strategic Studies at the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College. In his work on the forthcoming Norwegian joint doctrine he has studied the changing character of the military profession and published an article entitled "Idealism or Professionalism: is the Norwegian Defence ready for a new value basis?" He is also a member of the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College’s Media Group. Eriksson has his higher military education from the advanced programmes at both the Swedish National Defence College and the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College (with distinction). His operational background stems from the armoured branch of the Swedish army: he has served as company commander and battalion commander for armoured units and as the head instructor for tactics at the Swedish Army Combat School.
Tomas Jermalavicius has been the Dean at the Baltic Defence College since 2005. Jermalavicius has his educational background from the University of Vilnius (bachelor’s degree in political science) and King’s College (master’s degree in war studies). His previous positions include: Deputy Director, Department of Defence Policy and Planning, Ministry of National Defence of Lithuania (2005); Deputy Dean, Institute for Defence Studies, Baltic Defence College (2001–2004); Acting Head of Security Policy Division, Policy and Planning Department, Ministry of National Defence of Lithuania (1999–2000); and Desk Officer at Security Policy Division, Policy and Planning Department, Ministry of National Defence of Lithuania (1998–1999). His two most recent publications are “Karo prievole Lietuvoje: orientyrai diskusijoje” [Conscription in Lithuania: guidelines for discussion], in Novagrockiene, Jurate (ed.), Profesionalioji kariuomene: Vakaru šaliu patirtis ir perspektyvos Lietuvoje [All-Volunteer Armed Forces: Western Experience and Prospects in Lithuania] and "Global war on terror: rediscovering insurgency and counterinsurgency theory", in Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review (forthcoming).
Pasi Kesseli is a professor and military historian in “Operational Art and Tactics” at the Department of Tactics at the Finnish National Defence College. Professor Kesseli completed his Ph.D. at the University of Helsinki in January 2002 with the thesis “In Pursuit of Mobility: The Birth and Development of Israeli Operational Art From Theory to Practice”, published by the National Defence College under the same title. In addition to publications within matters Middle East, he has published studies concerning Finnish military history, general military history, research methodology of military art and various themes related to military art such as manoeuvre warfare and unconventional war.
Tom Kristiansen is Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies. At present he is leading the Institute’s Section for military theory and strategic studies. Kristiansen is a graduate of the University of Oslo and earned his doctorate at the University of Bergen. His field of research is European military and diplomatic history ca. 1814–1950 with an emphasis on military thinking, maritime issues and the defence traditions of small states. Kristiansen has previously been attached to the Norwegian Armed Forces Museum. He was acting director of the Institute 1994–96. Kristiansen was a Senior Lecturer at the Norwegian Naval Academy 2001–02. Among his publications are (with Rolf Hobson) Total krig, nøytralitet og politisk splittelse, vol. 3 of The History of Norwegian Defence 1905–1940 (Bergen: Eide forlag 2001) and (with Rolf Hobson) Navies in Northern Waters, 1721–2000 (London: Frank Cass Publishing, 2004).
has been assigned to the Baltic Defence College (Academic, War and Conflict Studies) since February 2006. She is presently conducting her doctoral programme in Political Science at the Central European University in Budapest. She earned her master’s degree from the same university and her bachelor’s degree from the Institute of International Relations and Political Science at the University of Vilnius. She has previously been a lecturer at the Institute of International Relations and Political Sciences at the University of Vilnius. Her latest publications are “Theories of terrorism and their application to nowadays challenges” in Lithuanian Political Science Review
, 2005; and “Old Violence, New Challenges: Adaptation of Basque ETA to Its Changing Environment” in Hughes and Devetak (eds.), Globalization and Violence
, Routledge 2005 (forthcoming). Maskaliunaite has presented papers at various conferences since 2002, including in Estonia, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
was born in 1947 in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1970 he was drafted to the army, The Army Language School, where he was trained in Russian language. He went through the Royal Military Academy (1972–76), Command and Staff Course I (1979–80) and Command and Staff Course II (1983–84) at the Royal Danish Defence College, where he became a teacher in military operations. He was company commander and battalion commander at the Royal Life Guard Regiment (1986–88). He became secretary in the parliamentarian defence commission 1988–90 and thereafter Head of the NATO department in the Ministry of Defence. In 1993 he was appointed director Danish Defence Research Establishment, in 1995 Colonel and commander 1. Jutland brigade, and in 1997 Brigadier General and commander Nordic-Polish Brigade, SFOR Bosnia. From 1998–2000 he served as defence attaché in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In 1998 he was designated Head of the NATO Military Liaison Mission in Moscow and promoted to Major General. From 2001 he has served as Commandant of the Royal Danish Defence College. He has been president of the Royal Society of Military Science (2000–2006) and the Danish Military Sports Association (2002–2005).
John Andreas Olsen
is head of the Division for Strategic Studies at the Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College and head of the College’s Media Group. He is the author of Strategic Air Power in Desert Storm
(London: Frank Cass, 2003), John Warden and the Renaissance in American Air Power
(Washington D.C.: Potomac Books, to be published in May 2007) and several editorials. Olsen has an engineering degree in electronics and master’s degree in English from Trondheim; a master’s degree in modern British politics from the University of Warwick; and a doctorate in History and International Relations from De Montfort University. He completed the German Command and Staff College with distinction in 2005 and next served as the Norwegian liaison officer to the German Operational Command in Potsdam and as the military assistant to the attaché in Berlin.
Military Studies : De quoi s’agit -il? Lieutenant Colonels John Andreas Olsen and Lars Magnus Eriksson Department of Strategic Studies Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College
The Research Basis for Teaching War Studies – or for the Officer Profession Professor Berndt Brehmer Department of War Studies Swedish National Defence College
Advanced Education of Officers in the 21st Century: War Studies or the Science of War as the Core Element Major General Karsten Møller Commandant of the Royal Danish Defence College
War Studies at the Finnish National Defence University Professor Pasi Kesseli The Finnish National Defence University
The future of War Studies in the Baltic States – "Cinderella" or "Princess" Professor Tomas Jermalavicius and Asta Maskaliunaite Baltic Defence College